English Grammar: Tense (A to Z)

Definition of Tense, Kinds of Tense and Kinds of subclasses Tense

 

Definition of Tense: Tense is the form of a verb which shows the time of an action present Past and Future indicated by the verb.

 

Kinds of Tense

  1. Present Tense
  2. Past Tense
  3. Future Tense

Present Tense: A verb that refers to the present time is said to be in the present.

Past Tense: A verb that refers to past time is said to be in the past Tense.

Future Tense: A verb refers to future time is said to be in the future Tense.

 

Kinds of sub classes Tense

Sub classes of Present Tense:

  1. Present Indefinite Tense
  2. Present Continuous Tense
  3. Present Perfect Tense
  4. Present perfect Continuous Tense

Sub Classes of Past Tense:

  1. Past Indefinite Tense
  2. Past Continuous Tense
  3. Past Perfect Tense
  4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Sub Classes of Future Tense:

  1. Future Indefinite Tense
  2. Future Continuous Tense
  3. Future Perfect Tense
  4. Future Perfect continuous Tense

 

Definition & Structure of Sub Classes Tense

 

Present Indefinite Tense: The present indefinite tense does not indicate any definite time it simply shows that the action is done a presentation.

Structure:
Subject + Verb with s/es (if it is 3rd person singular number)

Example:
1. I eat rice.
2. We go to School every day.
3. They play football.

 

Present continuous Tense: The present continuous tense expresses an action going on at the time of speaking.

Structure:
Subject + am/is/are + verb(ing)

Example:
1. I am writing a book.
2. We are going to market.
3. He is sleeping on the bed.

 

Present perfect Tense: The present perfect tense is used to express an action which is just finished but the result of which still exists.

Structure:
Subject + have/has + verb (p.p)

Example:
1. I have written a book
2. He has gone in the field.
3. They have played cricket.

 

Present Perfect Continuous Tense: The present perfect continuous tense is used to express an action that has been going on for a long time and still continuing.

Structure:
Subject + have been/has been + verb(ing) + object + extension

Example:

  1. I have been reading a book for 3 days.
  2. He has been eating rice for 2 hours
  3. They have been playing cricket for 5 hours.

 

Past Indefinite Tense: The Past Indefinite Tense is used to express a simple action in the past.

Structure:
Subject + verb (past form) + object + extension

Example:

  1. I ate rice.
  2. He went to university.
  3. He went home weeping.

 

Past continuous Tense: The past continuous Tense is used to express an action going on for some time in the past.

Structure:
Subject + was/were + verb(ing) + object + extension

Example:

  1. He was doing the work.
  2. We were playing in the field at that time.
  3. The man was trembling with fear.

 

Past Perfect Tense: The Past Perfect Tense is used to express an action that has been finished before another past action.

Structure:
Subject + had + verb(p.p) + before/after + object + extension

Example:

  1. Rahim had gone away before Karim came.
  2. We reached the station after the train had left.
  3. The patient had died before the doctor came.

 

Past Perfect Continuous Tense: The past perfect continuous Tense is used to express a past action which had been going on for sometimes before another past action.

Structure:
Subject + had been + verb(ing) + object + extension

Example:

  1. People had been gathering before the meeting began.
  2. Mother had been suffering from insomnia for a year.
  3. Mamun had been singing merrily before he came.

 

Future Indefinite Tense: The Future indefinite tense is used to express an action that will take place at sometimes in the future but it does not indicate any definite time.

Structure:
Subject + shall/will + verb (present form) + object + extension

Example:
1. I shall go home.
2. You will read a book.
3. He will apply for the job.

 

Future Continuous Tense: The future continuous tense is used to express an action that will be going on in future.

Structure:
Subject + shall be/will be + verb(ing) + object + extension

Example:

  1. I shall be reading.
  2. You will be reading.
  3. We shall be reading in the morning.

 

Future Perfect Tense: The Future perfect Tense is used to express an action that will be completed before another future action.

Structure:
Subject + shall have/will have + verb(past form) + after/before+ object + extension

Example:

  1. I shall go away after he will have come.
  2. He will have done this before you go to school.
  3. We shall have gone home before the train will leave the station.

 

Future Perfect Continuous Tense: The Future Perfect Continuous Tense denotes that the action will be going for a pretty long time before another future action.

Structure:
Subject + shall have been/will have been + verb(ing) + object + extension

Example:

  1. I shall have been reading before you come.
  2. I shall have been reading before the sun rises.
  3. The train will reach Dhaka after it will have been running for two days.

 

 

Structure of Sentence

 

Structure of Sentence of Present Indefinite Tense:

Affirmative:

  1. I write
  2. He speaks in English
  3. The sun rises in the east.

Negative:

  1. Rahim doesn’t go to school
  2. You don’t love me.
  3. They don’t like it

Interrogative:

  1. 1. Is he a doctor?
  2. 2. Does Sumon write a letter?
  3. 3. Do they sell fish?

Negative Interrogative:

  1. Doesn’t he study?
  2. Don’t I like him?
  3. Don’t you play?

 

Structure of sentence of Present Continuous Tense:

Affirmative:

  1. I am going to University
  2. You are playing
  3. I am reading a book.

Negative:

  1. She isn’t dancing well
  2. They aren’t writing a book
  3. I am not doing the work

Interrogative:

  1. Are they boys playing hockey?
  2. Are they running in the field?
  3. Are you going to University?

Negative Interrogative:

  1.  Isn’t he running in the field?
  2. Isn’t Karim reciting a poem?
  3. Aren’t they playing football?

 

Structure of Sentence of Present Perfect Tense:

Affirmative:

  1. I have done the work
  2. Rahim has lost his pen
  3. You have finished the work

Negative:

  1.  You haven’t eaten rice
  2. He hasn’t studied for hours.
  3. We haven’t seen a tiger

Interrogative:

  1. Has he given me a pen?
  2. Have you killed the tiger?
  3. 3. Has the clock struck ten?

Negative Interrogative:

  1. Haven’t we lived here for ten years?
  2. Hasn’t he finished his work yet?
  3. Haven’t I visited the zoo?

 

Structure of Sentence of present perfect continuous Tense:

Affirmative:

  1. It has been raining for 7 days.
  2. They have been reading since 10 A.M.
  3. He has been reading in this school for 5 years.

Negative:

  1. It has not been raining for 7 days.
  2. They haven’t been reading since 10 A.M.
  3. He has not been reading in this school for 5 years.

Interrogative:

  1. Has it been raining for 7 days?
  2. Have they been reading since 10 A.M.?
  3.  Have I been playing for 2 days?

Negative Interrogative:

  1. Haven’t I been playing football for 2 days?
  2. Haven’t they been running for since 6 P.M?
  3. Hasn’t he been crying for since?

 

Structure of sentence of past Indefinite:

Affirmative

  1. I ate rice
  2. Raju went to school
  3. He went to market

Negative

  1. I did not eat rice
  2. He did not go to school
  3. They did not play cricket

Interrogative

  1. Did he eat rice?
  2. Did I go to market?
  3. Did they play cricket?

Negative Interrogative

  1. Didn’t I go to school?
  2. Didn’t he a smoker?
  3. Didn’t they play cricket?

 

Structure of Sentence of Past Continuous Tense:

Affirmative

  1. I was playing football
  2. He was doing the work
  3. They were playing cricket

Interrogative

  1. Was I eating rice?
  2. Was he writing a letter?
  3. Were they going to market?

Negative

  1. I wasn’t eating rice
  2. He wasn’t going to market
  3. They weren’t playing cricket

Negative Interrogative

  1. Wasn’t I eating rice?
  2. Wasn’t he going to market?
  3. Weren’t they playing cricket?

 

Structure of Sentence of Past Perfect Tense:

Affirmative

  1. Rahim had gone away before Karim came
  2. We reached the station after the train had left
  3. I meet him after I had gone home

Interrogative

  1. Had Rahim gone away before Karim came?
  2. Had the train left after we reached the station?
  3. Had I gone home after I meet him?

Negative

  1. Rahim hadn’t gone away before Karim came
  2. The patient hadn’t died before the doctor came
  3. Jahangir said that he had not gone home

Negative Interrogative:

  1. Hadn’t Rahim been gone away before Karim came?
  2. Hadn’t the patient died before the doctor came?
  3. Hadn’t Jahangir been said that he went home?

 

Structure of Sentence of Past perfect continuous Tense:

Affirmative

  1. He had been writing a book for the last five years
  2. Munnu had been singing merrily before he came
  3. He had been reading before I saw him

Interrogative:

  1. Had I been writing a book for the last five years?
  2. Had Munna been singing merrily before he came?
  3. Had he been reading before I saw him?

Negative:

  1. I had not been writing a book for the last five years.
  2. Munna had not been singing merrily before he came
  3. He had not been reading before I saw him

Negative Interrogative:

  1. Had I not been writing a book for last five years?
  2. Had Munna not been singing merrily before he came?
  3. Had he not been reading before I saw him?

 

Structure of sentence of Future Indefinite Tense:

Example:

Affirmative:

  1.  I shall go.
  2. He will apply for the job.
  3. They will not waste away their time.

Interrogative:

  1. Shall I go?
  2. Will he apply for the job?
  3. Will they waste away their time?

Negative:

  1. I shall not go to Dhaka
  2. He will not apply for the job
  3. They will not waste away their time

Negative Interrogative:

  1. Shall I not go?
  2. Will he not apply for the job?
  3. Will they not waste away their time?

 

Structure of sentence of Future continuous Tense:

Example:

Affirmative:

  1. I shall be reading.
  2. They will be playing.
  3. We shall be reading in the morning.

Negative:

  1. I shall not be reading.
  2. We shall not be reading in the morning.
  3. They will not be playing.

Interrogative:

  1. Shall I be reading?
  2. Shall we be reading in the morning?
  3. Will they be playing?

Negative Interrogative:

  1. Shall I not be reading?
  2. Shall we not be reading in the morning?
  3. Will they not be playing?

 

Structure of sentence of Future perfect Tense:

Example:

Affirmative:

  1.  I shall go away after he will have come.
  2. They will have reached home before you go to school.
  3. He will have returned home by 10:00 A.M.

Interrogative:

  1. Shall I go away after he will have come?
  2. Will they have reached home before you go to school?
  3. Will he have returned home by 10:00 A.M.?

Negative:

  1. I shall not have to go away after he will have come.
  2. They will not have reached home before you go to school.
  3. He will not have returned home by 10 A.M.

Negative Interrogative:

  1. Shan’t I have gone away after he will have come?
  2. Won’t they have reached home before you go to school?
  3. Won’t he have returned home by 10 A.M.?

 

Structure of sentence of Future perfect continuous Tense:

Example:

Affirmative:

  1. I shall have been reading before the sun rises.
  2. The train will reach Dhaka after it will have been running for two days.
  3. We shall have been running till Jadu comes.

Negative:

  1. I shall not have been reading before the sun rises.
  2. The train will reach Dhaka after it will have been running for two days.
  3. We shall not have been running till Jadu comes.

Interrogative:

  1. Shall I have been reading before the sun rises?
  2. Will the train reach Dhaka after it will have been running for two days?
  3. Shall we have been running till Jadu comes?

Interrogative Negative:

  1. Shan’t I have been reading before the sun rises?
  2. Won’t the train reach Dhaka after it will have been running for two days?
  3. Shan’t we have been running till Jadu comes?

Filed Under: Tense