Next to china, India is the most populous country in the world. In figures, it has crossed the 900 million mark and is still growing leaps and bounds. One-sixth of the total populations of the world (above 500 cores) thus live in India, this globe are born daily one-fourth million (250 lakh) babies. India, this figure (of daily birth of babies) is about 35,000. So the position is simply alarming. For death rate is now substantially less, thanks to the wonderful improvement of medical science. Average expectation of life (longevity) has also gone up.
In the beginning of the 21th century, there will be about 14 per cent people above the age of sixty in our world. In the last forty years, the birth rate has dropped only from 38 to 27 per thousand heads. In the same period, life expectancy has increased from 46 to 63 years. In India, the age of retirement from govt. Service is generally 58th years or less. In the private sector some concerns (business blouses) have introduced they system of “golden hand-shake” which means pensioning off the old incumbent with a good cash amount by giving lucrative (gainful) retirement benefits, to make room for the new entrants, i.e. employing those that are very fit to work. Even then the economy cannot be balanced. And most of those already restored, cannot effectively take-pert in the creation of national dividend or income (cease to contribute economically). Thus the problem of unemployment is becoming more and more acute day by bay. The scenario (background) is still worse in India as in other over-populated countries of backward and underdeveloped areas. Thus there is just a possibility that there will be more pensioners at one end than the employed people at the other end.
Overgrowth of population is also eating into the benefits of planned economy. Five-year plans in India are, no doubt, creating a good number of new jobs. But due to excessive population growth back-log (uncovered burden) of unemployment continues unabated.
Inspire of commendable (praiseworthy) industrial development since independence, half of India’s national income proceeds come from the agriculture sector. But pressure on land in increasing us also the cost of yield on account of the use of fertilizers and higher labour charges etc. Increased population means more mouths to feed, larger quantity of yarns to clothe and more heads to be sheltered. Also more cools, more hospitals and, of course, many more offices and jobs are required. Thus the pressure on economy is persistent.
Helped by international bodies to some extent, India has taken up, since 1951, measures to check the staggering growth of population. But birth control measures have not so far proved quite successful. The birth rate could not be brought down even by one per cent in so many years. Some suggest marriageable age of girls should be more than eighteenth and that more stress should be laid on the advancement of women education and literacy drive in. Kerala where womenfolk are fairly educated, the average birthrate is the minimum in India. Lastly, there should be available more voluntary and trained women workers to work among prospective mothers in inducting birth control. Our govt. Wants to bring in down to 21 per thousand.
Propaganda campaigns (towards birth control) are arguably fruitful in India. There has been no let-up or halt in the propaganda for birth control through mass media like radio, TV. Cinema etc. Yet the result so far is not encouraging. Such efforts have to be stepped up further if India wants to survive and prosper as a nation. Too many hands are often counterproductive. The former Soviet Union did not encourage population control. In their opinion, with better planning a larger population world conduce to larger volume of production. But now stands exploded. Men of sound body and mind, even though few, can step up production more.