Introduction: dengue fever has paralyzed the city dwellers with fear. The panic is, of course, justified considering there is no effective cure of the disease and that anyone of any age group is susceptible to it.
Origin of the disease: the firs clinical record of dengue of break bone fever was attributed to Benjamin rush in 1780. That the disease is caused by a virus transmitted by mosquitoes were demonstrated by studies in human volunteers in 1905 to 1906. The first outbreak of dengue fever in Bangladesh was reported in 1964.
What does dengue mean: dengue is deadly viral fever also known as ‘fever’. The dengue virus is transmitted to humans by the aide’s aegypti mosquito when the hemotocrit of blood increases and platelet count decreases, person is diagnosed with dengue. The fever it brings come in four strains. Infection, it is now learnt, guarantees immunity against only one type.
Types of dengue: there are two types of dengue fever:-
- Classical dengue fever.
- Dengue hemorrhagic fever (HDF).
- Classical dengue fever is a less dangerous and very rarely causes death. On the contrary, dengue hemorrhagic fever is a sever form of dengue, caused by infection with more than one dengue virus.
A. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF): in DHF, the patients may emit blood with
- Their stool, vomit and nose
- However, the typical symptoms include
- High fever
- Bone and muscle aches
- Cough and runny nose
- Burning sensation and redness in the eyes
B. classical dengue fever: the typical symptoms of classical dengue fever may be the same as DHF but it is less dangerous and the patient tends to recover from the disease within a few days. There is bleeding in classical dengue although the platelet count may fall.
Mode of transmission: the infection is transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito aides Egyptian and bites during day times. The mosquito becomes infected by biting by biting a dengue virus infected patient.
Prevention and control measures:-
prevents mosquito bites:
- Wear full sleeved clothes and long dress trousers that cover arms and legs during outbreak situation.
- Use mosquito coils and electric vapor mats or spray during the day.
- Keep patients protected from mosquito bite by mosquito nets to prevent mosquitoes form fitting sick people and help stop the spread of dengue.
prevent multiplication of aides:
- Clean drain water from coolers tanks drums and buckets and spray insecticide.
- All stored water containers should be kept covered all the time.
- Discard solid waste and objects where water collects bottles, tins.
- Remove water from refrigerator drip pans every other day.
- These following programs are needed to present multiplication of aide’s Egyptian mosquito. Adequate public awareness campaigns to inform the public about the disease and how to combat it. Free testing facilities for dengue patients and proper treatment facilities. Spraying of pesticides by City Corporation regularly to eradicate mosquitoes and flexibility of response, innovation and community participation should be the hallmark of a control program.
Conclusion: the dengue crisis is being form bad to worse each year. The information generated at various levels of public health system lack central integration for an accurate assessment of ground realities before embarking on a national program. Dengue may be the harbinger of a new reality of infectious disease epidemic in this part of world.