Introduction: Bangladesh is one of developing countries of south-east Asia. It is visited by different natural calamities almost every year. Our fate is that we have to survive by fighting against reoccurring natural calamities. Ours is a life of great challenge indeed.
Causes of natural calamities: the world climate is undergoing a rapid and major change day by bay with a negative effect for human habitation on earth. This change in climate is giving rise to a dreadful effect called green house effect. This green house effect is increasing the heat in the atmosphere and releasing poisonous gas all around. It is most dreadful for human as well as other living beings. This gas is largely being emitted by the industrially developed countries of the world. They are emitting this gas more than 70-80 times of the developing countries like ours. The result is that we, the people of developing countries, are getting victims year after year and suffering deadly with the loss of heavy tools of lives and properties. In this way, out lives and properties are now quite at a stake for the unwise and whimsical activities of the advanced countries. We are now just left to the mercy of these countries for our survival on earth. This helpless condition was exposed on October 17, 2009 before the world people by the cabinet ministry of maldip through holding conference under the sea-water. Besides members of the parliament of Nepal held a conference on 4 December, 2009 above a height of 17, 192 feet at the base camp of Mount Everest with a view to heightening awareness among the climate of the world. The helplessness of our coastal Bangladesh is all the more miserable. It is because geographically Bangladesh is situated in a most disadvantageous position with the great threat of falling victim to the climate change and global warming. Johan hurry, a British journalist, paid a visit to different areas of Bangladesh and publisher alarming news in the independent about Bangladesh, ‘Bangladesh is set to didapper under the waves by the end of the century.’ This alarming condition of Bangladesh was also revealed in the ‘UN world climate conference’ held at Copenhagen on 7 December, 2009 where Bangladesh was declared to be the most victimized country of the world.
Cyclone: Bangladesh is a low-lying land. Cyclone or storm hits our land almost every year in summer or in late autumn. It is caused by the low depression created due to the intensive heat of the sun in the Bay of Bengal. This depression ultimately results in a sever cyclonic storm. Then it advances rapidly and hits the off-shore islands. Sometimes cyclone is attended with tidal bore. In 1991, Bangladesh was attacked by terrible cyclone accompanied by tidal bore. The havoc caused by cyclone is beyond description. It destroys almost everything that comes within its sweep. Houses and buildings are blown down, giant trees are uprooted. Thousands of people are swept away by the strong current of the water of the tidal bore and countless cattle are killed. Loss of property runs to hundreds of cores of taka. People who survive lose all their belongings and live a sub-human life. It also endangers ships and steamers, capsizes boats and launches and kills men and cattle. People suffer greatly for want of pure drinking water. There prevails obnoxious odor of the rotten human bodies and carcasses all around. In 2007, a most devastating cyclone calls ‘sidr’ swept over the coastal belts of Bangladesh and caused untold destruction to life and property.
Flood: flood is the most familiar natural calamity in our country. It is mainly caused by heavy showers of rains in the rainy season. Rivers and canals cannot hold excessive water within and overflow their banks and cause flood. Flood causes a great havoc to life, property and crops. Roads, streets and even homes go under water. Thousands of people becomes homeless or shelter less. They take shelter on house tops trees, boats and embankments. Famine breaks out in the wake of flood. Communications are seriously disrupted. Then people have to move by boats. The floods of 1994, 1970, 1988 and 1998 were most terrible in all respects. The flood of 1998 broke the record of the past. Never before did water level rise so high nor was the duration so long. It lasted for more than two months. The whole country went under water. All communications were cut off. Then the normal activities of the people came to a standstill. Thousands of people became thousands of people met watery grave. The prices of essential commodities looked up abnormally the after-effects were all the more terrible.
Drought and “Farakka Barrage”: drought is another natural calamity in Bangladesh. Is occurs in summer. It causes damage to crops almost every year. The chopping of trees at random is the main cause of drought. The irrigating system is not much developed in our country. Besides, the “Farakka barrage” of India across the Ganges has created a serious problem of Bangladesh. The overflow of the Ganges water causes server floods which inundate Bangladesh and the underflow causes extreme drought which brings in famine. They both are damaging the economic base of Bangladesh and affecting the ecological balance of the country.
Remedies: these calamities are caused by whims of natural. We have nothing to do against them. What is needed to be done is to take precautionary measures to control these natural calamities. We can suggest the following ways to control natural calamities in our country:
- Rivers should be dredged regularly.
- More rivers and canals should be excavated.
- More sluice gates and outlets should be constructed at strategic points.
- People should be made aware of the adverse effects of deforestation and good effects of planting more and more trees.
- Environment should be kept free from different kinds of pollutions.
- Industrial developed countries should check the unwise and selfish activities of emitting green house gas.
- Government of the victim countries should come forward and come to a negotiation with the governments of the industrially advanced countries.
- Our govt. Should take active steps to reach an amicable settlement with India and Nepal for the prevention of floods.
- Our government should also make massive precautionary measures about the upcoming disasters beforehand.
- A permanent relief found should be maintained to help the victims.
- Our governments and people of all walks of life should come forward to help the victims in all possible ways.