Wednesday, September 20, 2017

An Essay on The Advantages of The Internet and E-Mail

Let us imagine a place where people interact in business situations, play video games, do research, or study and get tutoring. Now let us imagine that there are no office buildings, no shopping centers, no arcades, no libraries, and no schools. These places all exist in a location called the Internet, the public and private computer networks that span the globe. This technological advance not only benefits people of the present, but also brings forth future innovations.

People use the Internet for many purposes, yet there are three popular reasons. First, there is the sending and receiving of messages through the electronic mail. Second, there are discussion groups with a wide range of topics in which people can join. Finally, people are free to browse into vast collection of resources (or databases) of the World Wide Web. Electronic mail (e-mail) brings a unique perception into the way of communication. Although, it did not replace the traditional means of communication such as letters and telephone calls, it has created a new method of transmitting information in a more efficient way. E-mail saves time between the interval of sending and receiving a message. Sending an e-mail message halfway around the world can arrive at its destination within a minute or two. In comparison, a letter can take from a few days to a couple of weeks, according to the distance it travels. Furthermore, e-mail is inexpensive. The cost of connection to the Internet is relatively cheaper than that of cable television. Evidently e-mail is both time-saving and cost-effective.

Discussion groups are a great way to interact with others in the world and to expand the knowledge of one's horizon. The response is instantaneous just like the telephone except it is non-verbal (typed). Discussion groups are on-line services that make use of non-verbal communication in the interest of the user. Services can range from tutor sessions to chat-lines where people just want to mingle. Communication through the Internet is a way of meeting new people. There is no racial judgment in meeting on the Internet because physical appearance is not perceived. However, attitude and personal characteristics are evident from the style in which a person talks (or types). This kind of communication helps narrow the gap between people and cultural differences. Communicating in discussion groups sometimes lead to even one-to-one conversations that soon enough become a link to friendship. Connections are being made when people meet each other; therefore, information on interest Web sites can be passed on.

The World Wide Web (WWW) holds information that answers questions to the user. The main purpose of the WWW is to give a variety of information ranging from literature to world geography. WWW contains Web sites that are created by government agencies and institutions to business companies and individuals. WWW carries text, graphics, and sound to catch the interest of people browsing through the different Web sites. These Web sites are being added daily, while the existing sites are being revised to compensate for more updated information and interests.

This growth of information will soon become a world library of topics on anything that one can imagine. A person using the Internet for one-day encounters more information than a person reading in the library for a whole year. It is the convenience of the Internet that allows a person to go through an enormous amount of information in a short period of time. This information community can pull the minds of user’s closer together, thus making the world smaller.

The Internet is full of people who are requesting and giving out information to the ones who are interested, since "information wants to be free." Hypothetically, if everyone is connected to at least one other person on the Internet, eventually everyone will meet each other. In other words, the world will gradually evolve into a "global village" which can be defined as the world, thought of as a village, a condition arising from shrinking distance by instantaneous world-wide electronic communication. Thus, the Internet is a wonderful tool and medium in which people can interact with the information society. After all, information is like the building blocks of technological advancement.

Sunday, September 17, 2017

Letter to Your Father Telling Him How You Have Prepared for The Ensuing Coming S.S.C Examination

Question: Write a letter to your father telling him how you have prepared for the ensuing coming S.S.0 C examination.

Date: November 12, 1917

My dear father,
I have received your letter. I am sorry for not replying to it earlier because I was busy with my studies. You have wanted to know about my preparation for the coming H.S.0 examination. You will be glad to know that I have taken quite a good preparation for it.

Mathematics seems very interesting to me. I hope I would be able to cut a good figure in Mathematics. I have also read thoroughly almost all the topics of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. I have although been well off in language. I think I will do well in English and Bangla. Moreover. I have solved different questions of quite a good number of boards and schools from the test paper. Special classes are also being taken by our teachers in the school. I can assure you that if God wishes I could save your face in the forthcoming examination.

I am well. With best wishes to mother and love to the younger brothers and sisters.

Your affectionate son,

Saturday, September 16, 2017

Letter to Your Friend Consoling Him at This Failure in the H.S.C Examination

Question: Write a letter to your friend consoling him at this failure in the H.S.C examination.

Date:November 12, 2017


Dear Lucky.
With great enthusiasm, I opened the newspaper to see the happy news of your success. But I was greatly shocked when I found your roll number missing in the newspaper. Had I known it before that I would have to receive such a shocking news, I would not have gone through the result.

Dear Lucky, what is gone. gone forever. What is lotted, cannot be blotted. You should not take your failure to heart. Your long illness before your examination troubled your studies. Moreover, your mother was sick and you had to look after all the household affairs. All these are responsible for your failure.

We all know about your brilliant result in the previous examinations. I do still believe that if you start to work hard right from now. next year you will make again a brilliant result.

Please write to me about your progress. With best wishes to your parents and love to the youngers.

My parents join me in my sympathy towards you.

Yours sincerely

An Essay on Health

"Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity" (World Health Organization). Good health requires provision of health care for prevention and treatment of disease and injury, good nutrition and safe environments. The health of populations has many links with other sectors, such as economic, education, water and sanitation and gender.

proverty is both a cause and an effect of poor health. The poor suffer more and face more serious consequences from ill health. Developing countries also have less capacity to provide basic health services for their people.

Great gains in health have been made over the last fifty years as the result of improvements in income and education, with accompanying improvements in nutrition, access to contraceptives, hygiene, housing, water supplies, and sanitation. The underlying threats to good health are well known and affordable solutions are frequently available but because of weak government capacity potentially effective policies and programs often fail.

Some of the key health areas are: 

Public health systems: Public health aims to prevent illness and injury, control the spread of disease and enhance current and future wellbeing and quality of life of a nation's population. Activities include health education, provision of drugs, immunization, and family planning, supply of clean water and sanitation.

Most developed countries spend 5.5% to 8.0% of their GDP on health while the least developed countries spend 1.0% to 3.0%. These differences in expenditure are reflected in the quality of the delivery and responsiveness of the health systems and general I watt h indicators for the population.

Nutrition: Access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food is an important way to prevent disease, strengthen immunity and build better health. Although often invisible, malnutrition affects nearly 800 million people worldwide, especially the poor. It maims, cripples, blinds and kills. Young children are especially vulnerable to malnutrition, those surviving may suffer ongoing disease and disability, affecting their ability to learn and develop to their full potential.

Immunization: Access to immunization, the protection from diseases by stimulating the body's own immune system to develop antibodies against subsequent infection or disease varies greatly across the world. A child in a developing country is ten times more likely to die of a vaccine-preventable disease than a child from an industrialized one. Immunization is among the most cost-effective interventions. Since the 1980s, considerable progress in immunization against measles, polio, peruses, diphtheria, tetanus and tuberculosis, has been made, although worldwide average vaccination coverage of children under five fell from 80% in 1990 to 74% in 1999.

Malaria: Malaria is a common and serious tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by high fever. It causes at least 300-500 million cases of acute illness and 1.3 million deaths each year, 90% of which are in Africa. It is the leading cause of deaths in young children and is also particularly dangerous for pregnant women, causing severe anemia, miscarriages, stillbirths, low birth weight and maternal death. Malaria traps families and communities in a downward spiral of poverty, disproportionately affecting poor people who have limited access to health care and for whom loss of income and education has an ongoing impact. Key interventions to control malaria include: prompt and effective treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies; use of insecticidal nets by people at risk; and indoor residual spraying with insecticide to control the vector mosquitoes.

HN/AIDS: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and causes the breakdown of the body's own system of protection. An estimated 33 million people are living with HIV/AIDS with 95% of global infections in developing countries.

HIV/AIDS threatens to reverse years of development and put at risk the political stability and economic security of these countries. It attacks people in their most productive years, destroys communities, and disrupts food production. Heavy burdens are placed on already weak health services. There is no effective cure for HIV. It is a complex social issue which involves changing attitudes and behaviors. Antiretroviral drugs, combined with good nutrition and good health care to fend off opportunistic infections, can limit the effects of HIV.

Water and sanitation: Around 1.8 million people die every year from diarrhea diseases caused by lack of safe drinking water and adequate sanitation. At any one time about one-half of all people in developing countries are suffering from diseases associated with water. Diseases may be caused by drinking water contaminated by human or animal waste, insects which breed in water or parasites. The energy expended carting water long distances also has a health and time cost on women and children. Improved access to water and a knowledge of hygiene and management practices can lead to improved health.

Friday, September 15, 2017

An Essay on Computer-Aided Learning

Post-primary basic and continuing education (PACE) program of BRAC is involved in many aspects of quality improvement of secondary education. Poor preparation of teachers has been detected as one of the reasons of quality decline in education in Bangladesh. Teachers need refreshers courses both in content and proper pedagogies for teaching. In addition, in urban areas where families are comparatively well-off, parents and guardians encourage their children to study and stay in schools even after school hours to have extra teaching. But the students in rural areas do not attend schools regularly because classroom situation hardly attracts them. Teachers also find it difficult to retain the interest of the students in the large classes of 60 to 100 learners. This environment contributes to the rural schools' inability to retain students till the completion of their secondary education.

PACE has explored the difficult areas to identify methods to improve the teaching-learning scenario in the classrooms to enhance students' overall learning environment. It is seen that in many countries of the world IT is being used for improving the academic learning outcomes of children. Considering this fact, PACE started developing the Computer-Aided Learning program in 2004 to improve the teaching capacity of the teachers and to make the classes much more interesting, interactive and exciting for the students so that they become interested and want to stay in school beyond their usual hours.

The prime objective of the program is to develop interactive education software based on the national curriculum. Any sort of endeavor needs piloting to assess whether and how a new thing can be guided further forward. So, PACE selected seven schools at Mirzapur Upazila for pilot program to develop the software and see how it works and how far it makes the students interested and benefited. The program started with mathematics and later English and science were included in January 2006.

The broader objectives of the Computer Aided Learning (CAL) are:
  1. To move from the teacher-centered classroom to a more interactive one;
  2. To make the class more interactive and engaging;
  3. To ensure conceptual clarity and better application;
  4. To increase teachers' understanding of the lessons;
  5. Self-learning provision for both teachers and students and
  6. To familiarize the rural students and teachers with the modern computer technology.

CAL materials will be used as a supplementary tool for Teacher Training which is another significant component of BRAC education program particularly in the secondary education. Various questions, visual aids and relevant examples will guide the trainee teachers to facilitate the learning of the students and make the classroom more interactive, learner-centered and comfortable. The materials can be used for their own development. To make a class interactive and effective, the teachers need to ask various questions and use relevant examples.

The CAL materials will help the teachers to learn these techniques. CAL materials will function as a learning facilitation tool for classroom teaching. Teachers can use the materials to explain topics and to facilitate the learning points/skills that are coordinated with the textbooks.

To select the schools the following criteria were followed:
  1. The Head Teacher was ready to cooperate with PACE in all respects to implement the materials of CAL.
  2. The school would spare one classroom for holding CAL class.
  3. The school would take the responsibilities to protect all computer equipment given by PACE for conducting CAL class .
  4. The school enjoys regular power supply.
  5. The school was either for girls or majority students are girls.
  6. A gonokendra (village library-another initiative of BRAC) was attached to the school.
  7. The subject based teachers (mathematics and English) received PACE training in both first and second modules.

Forty-one teachers of the seven piloting schools have already been trained so that they can use CAL materials comfortably in their classroom situation.

The CAL training in all the three subjects (English, Science and Mathematics) is divided into two parts. Rural teachers usually do not have any access to computer operation. So, the first part of the CAL training is dedicated to introducing the teachers to the function of computer in three or four days.

Teacher's training is a significant part of the process of developing CAL materials. It is observed that the trainees who are practicing teachers provide useful feedback on developed lessons. Therefore, it is very important for the CAL materials developers to participate in the teacher training. The materials developers learn the drawbacks of the lessons. Their participation will enhance the quality of training as they introduce and explain the materials to the teachers better than any other skilled trainers.

While developing the materials at the piloting stage, the developers and IT team targeted the lesson school-term wise and developed materials accordingly. To collect feedback on lessons imparted to the teachers, two reflection formats were given to the teachers. At the end of training, the participants prepared term wise lesson plan where they followed their own class routines. Two teachers from one school prepared their own schools lesson plan. Besides receiving 6-10 days training in CAL materials, the teachers also attended one or half day refreshers meeting. The positive response of the students and schools tells us that Computer Aided Learning is getting ground. Really it is getting popularity among the rural students. This sort of learning can be spread throughout rural Bangladesh.

Sunday, September 10, 2017

Composition on The Worst Face of the Internet?

With the easy availability of Internet access, the internet is being misused not only by the youth and kids but also by the matured people. The easy availability of Pornography, the lustful chatting is causing havoc in the society.  The teenager boy and girls can be seen sitting in cyber cafes visiting adult’s sites, making lustful chats, wasting hours together and lots of money. Owning cyber cafes wherein provided separate cabins for the individual users, have become a lucrative money making business, at the cost of young generation. In spite of laws and rules to prevent such misuse of Internet, no result action is taken and that to a great extent responsible for degeneration and disintegration of youth of today, inviting maturity before date, knowing everything about sex. The increase in sex crimes, the moral degradation of youth, the increase in the cases of young boys and girls involved in sexual relations, due to easy accessibility of adult sites at internet.

Every agency, executives, politicians and parents are well aware of the face, but find no solution to stop the misuse of the internet. The government has to tackle this situation in order to keep the youth away from such sites. At last the cyber cafes must be checked and stern action or exemplary punishment must be awarded to such a person running cafes found involved in such activities.

An Essay on Rabindranath Tagore Or, My Best Author

Introduction: Birth and parentage: The author I like best is Rabindranath Tagore. He was born on the 6th of May, 1861, in the famous Tagore family of Jorasanko in Calcutta. His father. Debendranath Tagore, was held in high esteem for his saintly life.

Early years and education: Rabindranath's early years were spent in case and comfort. He was sent to school at the usual age, but he felt uneasy within the four walls of the school and often played truant. His brother, Jyotirindranat, recognized his genius and made arrangement at home for his proper education. So, though he had no regular schooling, he had a liberal education of a high order. A few years later, he was sent to England. He spent a few months with Prof. Henry Morley at the University of London studying English literature and then abruptly returned home.

Literary activities: It is impossible even to give a brief summary of Rabindranth's literary works and activities. Even when he was a mere boy, he composed, as many as six books of poems and lyrical dramas. He showed distinct signs of the originality of his genius in his Sandhya Sangit. Thereafter his lyrical genius found effusion in such excellent workS as prabhat Sangit, Chhabi-O-Gan, Kari-O-Komal, Manashi, Sonar Tari, Chitra etc. His lyric sounded a new note and raised the tone of Bengali poetry. His other well-know poetical works are Chaitali, Kanika, Katha-O-Kahini, Kalpana. Na ibeyda, Sahamaran, Shish, Utsarga, Kheya, Gitanjali etc. He selected a good number of songs and poems from Gitanjali and some other works and translated them into English. In 191.3 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for the translated version of this collections entitled Gitanjali or, Song OfFerings. Notable among Tagore'S laier bhooks of poems are Balaka, Shishu Bholanath, Purabi, Parishesh, Shesh Saptak, Shyamali, Prantik, Nabajatak, Janmadindy. Arogya, Shesh Lehka etc.

Versatility of his genius: Rabindranth was a versatile genius. I-le wroth poems, novel short stories, dramas essays and xcelled equally in all. His novel have brought about a change in Bengali literature. Choker Bali is his first psychological novels arc Naukadubi, Ghare Baire, Shesher Kabita, Jogajog, Chaturanga etc. He also wrote a number of drams which include Chira Kumar Sabha, Rakita Karabi, Raja-O-Rani, Ilisarjan and others, His short stories are many. They are all noted for their exquisite beauty. His various essays and letters are all famous for their literary qualities.

His patriotism and cosmopolitanism: Rabindranath was a great patriot. But he hated narrow nationalism and developed a cosmopolite spirit. He travelled widely and visited all the important centres of the world. To give concrete shape to his dreams and k;deals and to train up the younger generation in the cosmopolitan spirit, he founded the University of Biswabharati Bolepore.

Death: Full of glory and honours, Rabindranath passed away on the 7th of August, 1941 at his Calcutta residence. So people celebrate this day with due solemnity and befitting.