Thursday, November 23, 2017

An Essay on Urbanization and Its Causes

Living in cities: Cities have long been places where the concentration of large numbers of people has fostered specialization in commerce, industry, arts, sciences and culture. The percentage of the world's population living in cities is increasing rapidly - from 2% in 1800 to 14% in 1900 to 47% in 2000 to a projected 60% in 2030. This growth results partly from people moving to cities to take advantage of increased opportunities and improve their standard of living. It is also the result of migration from other countries and the high fertility rates of the more mobile young people.

Each city develops in a unique way according to the people, policies, resources and geography of the area. There is an ongoing change as people move, needs change and buildings and infrastructure age. Globalization with its rapidly developing communication technology and movement of capital is leading to some cities becoming powerful across the world, while others with less resources, are expanding due to the migration of people for work purposes, particularly in the labor-intensive manufacturing and service industries.

Rapidly increasing populations in cities often mean that there are major economic, social and environmental issues to be addressed - particularly in the fast-growing cities in developing countries.

Economic issues: Cities are increasingly becoming the engines of economic growth. Urban-based economic activities account for more than 50% of gross domestic product in all countries, and more than 80% in Europe. The lowering of trade barriers associated with globalization, coupled with improved transport, communications and production processes has seen jobs and capital move to areas with lower wage costs.

The resulting volatility in the job market has meant that only those who can adapt are likely to remain in employment. Many people are cut out of work because they lack the requisite training and the means to obtain it. This is leading to rapidly increasing the numbers of urban poor. The poor and unskilled are vulnerable to exploitation, as surplus labor means wages can be kept low and working conditions poor. Many people create them own employment through informal jobs and micro enterprise, such as selling small items on the street or services such as shoe cleaning or repairs.

Housing and infrastructure: Without income the poor may be homeless or forced to find cheap housing, often in squatter settlements in open spaces along railway lines, rivers or highways
and made from scavenged materials. These areas generally have uncertain water and electricity supply, limited transport and poor-quality food, and are affected by pollution and crime. Poor sewerage and pollution lead to disease, which quickly spreads in cramped conditions. People living in these areas suffer insecurity being under the constant threat of eviction so the land can be used for more economically productive purposes.

A growing population places a major strain on outdated facilities, while the cost of the new ones can be very high. Increasingly, the massive costs of developing and maintaining infrastructure or rebuilding it after destruction by conflict or natural disasters, has led to the privatization of services, which often brings increased costs that affect the poor people the hardest.

Social issues: People in cities tend to live further away from their families and have fewer family connections. This separation can mean greater freedom and less restriction on behaviors, particularly in the case of women, but it also can limit social support and family breakdown and the exploitation or abuse of vulnerable people. It is important for governments to maintain law and order in protection of these people.

International migration means that many cities have a multicultural population which can result in culturally distinct areas or ethnic ghettos. Positive social interaction and tolerance can be improved with good policy and shared cultural, religious and recreation facilities.

Environmental issues: Expanding cities make big demands on the environment, often taking over farmland, polluting waterways and producing large amounts of waste in order to meet the population's need for food, water and energy. If cities are to be sustainable the amount of damage they cause to the environment needs to be limited by such means as restricting their growth, enforcing improved services and increasing accessibility of services so that people can walk or cycle to workplaces and shops. Encouraging growth in rural areas through improved services also limit the expansion of cities. Open spaces in cities can also add to their livability both socially and environmentally.

A Dialogue Between Myself and My Friend Badal About Mobile Phone

Myself: Hello Badal. how are you?

Badal: I'm fine Zuber. What's about you?

Myself: I'm o.k. I want to talk to you about the mobile phone.

Badal: Everybody knows about the usefulness and benefits of mobile phone. It's a wonderful invention modern science.

Myself: Yes, I know it has added a new dimension to our life and communication system. But is it an unmixed blessing?

Badal: There are so many benefits of a mobile phone that I cannot think of any demerit of it. Now within seconds communication can be made with the people living in distant places through this wonderful invention.

Myself: Do you know that mobile phone can cause dangerous diseases?

Badal: What dangerous disease can be caused?

Myself: Scientists have recently discovered that mobile phone can cause cancer to the users.

Badal: Is there any other demerit of mobile Phone.

Myself: Yes, by using mobile phone, terrorists and criminals carry on with their evil desires and commit crimes without much difficulty.

Badal: You are right. I never thought of these drawbacks.

Myself: Though there are some demerits of mobile phone, it is useful to the people of all professions in communicating with people at home and abroad.

Badal: Thank you very much for giving me such valuable information about mobile phone.

Myself: You're welcome.

Wednesday, November 22, 2017

An Essay on Human Rights

The United Nations vision is of a world in which the human rights of all are fully respected and enjoyed in conditions of global peace. The High Commissioner works to keep that vision to the forefront through constant encouragement of the international community and its member States to uphold universally agreed human rights standards. It is their role to alert Governments and the world community to the daily reality that these standards are too often ignored or unfulfilled, and to be a voice for the victims of human rights violations everywhere. It is also their role to press the international community to take the steps that can prevent violation around the world.

What are human rights? 

Human rights are so basic that those who are lucky enough to have them may take them for granted. We drink clean water; have sufficient, uncontaminated food and access to good health care; are able to go to school, say or write what we think (within limits), practice our beliefs, safely earn a living and vote for a political party; and expect to be treated fairly by others.

Yet not all people in the world have these basic needs met or protected. Nearly one-third of the world's population lives in poverty, without adequate food, water, education and health care. Many people are discriminated against because of their gender, race, religious beliefs or disability. Many people face unfair work practices, illegal detention, persecution, torture and death because their governments do not protect their rights.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was adopted by the United Nations in 1948 (with 48 members in favor and eight abstentions). It outlines the rights of all people. The rights stated in the declaration can be grouped as:

Civil and political rights - rights that protect individual freedoms and participation in the decision-making processes of the community and those that relate to freedom of thought, opinion and religion; economic, social and cultural rights - rights that achieve a minimum standard of living (food, health care) and which ensure a share in a country's economic welfare (employment, education).

Human rights are considered universal, indivisible and fundamental for development and democracy. All people must have access to all rights in order for the world to be a safe and secure place.

How are human rights protected?

The Universal Declaration on Human Rights outlines the hopes of its writers for a free and fairer world, but signatories are not legally hound to uphold its recommendations. However, since its adoption a number of conventions and protocols that are legally binding have been developed to improve the protection of human rights for all people. These include:
  • The Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (1954) 
  • The Intentional Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) 
  • The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) 
  • Intentional Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1969)
  • The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Hi against Women (1981)
  • Convention at "Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1984)
  • The Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990).
After signing one of these formal documents a country must develop laws to formalize its commitment, and it must report on its progress in implementing the relevant convention to groups within the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (or the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees protects refugees for the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees). Various bodies of experts and review committees may investigate a country's implementation of its commitment to the conventions and respond to complaints by other countries and individuals. The findings of these investigations may lead to recommendations for improvement or even sanctions.

Why doesn't everyone have access to their human rights?

The Universal Declaration on Human Rights is an ambitious and complex document. Implementing all of its aspects is a great challenge for all countries. Some rights may conflict with others. Some groups may need special consideration to help them gain equality. Governments may feel the need to restrict rights to freedom of speech or peaceful assembly in times of instability and conflict. The provision of basic needs may be a problem when resources are scarce. The rights of women and children may conflict with cultural traditions.

How can we contribute to the protection of human rights?

It is important that we learn about our rights and responsibilities and how to protect them so we can assist in guaranteeing access to rights for all people. Until everyone can enjoy their right to life, liberty and security the world will remain an unsafe and unfair place. We must learn the skills of active tolerance and compromise to overcome differences and foster cross-cultural communication and advocacy to uphold the rights and freedoms of disadvantaged or oppressed individuals and communities. This may mean reviewing our attitudes and behaviors so that the way we live our lives does not limit the rights of others.

An Essay on The Right to Education

Education is central to development - it empowers people and strengthens nations. It is one of the most powerful instruments for reducing poverty and inequality and helps lay a foundation for sustained economic growth. It is at the center of the World Bank's mission of poverty reduction. The Bank helps countries integrate education into national economic strategies and develop holistic and balanced education systems that produce results. The aim is to help countries achieve universal primary education and quality learning for all while investing in the skills and knowledge necessary for their growth and competitiveness. The World Bank is committed to help countries achieve Education for All (EFA) and, through Education for the Knowledge Economy (EKE), build dynamic knowledge societies. The site provides news updates as well as information on projects, publications and events.

What is Right to Education?

Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: "Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit."

The right to at least a primary education is seen as so important that the United Nations gave it the second highest priority in the Millennium Development Goals, after the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger.

The importance of education is that it creates opportunities and choices for individuals, offering chances to improve standards of living while creating citizens who are skilful, well-informed and equipped to help their country achieve economic and social prosperity.

The Education for All: The 1990 Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, pledged to achieve universal primary education by 2000. But in 2000, 104 million school-age children were still not in school, 57 percent of them were girls and 94 percent were in developing countries - mostly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The Millennium Development Goals set a more realistic, but still difficult, deadline of 2015 when all children, everywhere, should be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. The steps to achieving this were outlined in the Framework for Action's following six goals:

Expand early childhood care and education: A safe and caring environment and good quality early childhood care and education, both in families and formal programs, helps improve the survival, growth, development and learning potential of young children.

Provide free and compulsory education of good quality by 2015: No one should be denied the opportunity to complete a good quality primary education because it is not affordable. Children should not have to travel great distances or fear for their safety getting to school. Education needs to be inclusive and flexible, supplying the needs of all learners, including those who may have to work to help in the family businesses.

Promote the acquisition of life-skills by adolescents and youth.

Many young people are unable to complete primary school, and need youth-friendly programs to help develop useful social and work-related skills.

Increase adult literacy rates by 50% by 2015.

Adult education is often overlooked and under-funded. Increasing the education of adults beyond basic literacy assists families and the general development of communities.

Eliminate gender disparities in education by 2005 and achieve gender equity by 2015.

Access to education for girls includes creating safe school environments, and overcoming bias in teacher and community attitudes, courses, textbooks and teaching and learning activities. Literacy is a fundamental skill which empowers women to take control of their own lives, to engage directly with authority and to access the wider world of learning. Research indicates that there is a direct, positive correlation between women's education and increasing children's chances of surviving so that they, in turn, become healthier and better educated.

Enhance educational quality: A quality education satisfies basic learning needs while enriching the lives of the learners and their life experiences. Such an education requires motivated students, well-trained and supported teachers, adequate facilities, relevant curriculum, an encouraging environment, clear and accurate assessment, and recognition of local communities and cultures.

Thursday, November 02, 2017

A Dialogue Between Yourself and The Principal of your college for a Transfer Certificate

Question: Your father has been transferred from Dhaka to Jamalpur. You met the Principal of your college for a Transfer Certificate. At first, he was unwilling to give you the T.C. But somehow, he was managed. New write a dialogue between yourself and the Principal of your college for a Transfer Certificate.

Answer:

Myself: May I come in, sir?

Principal: Yes, come in.

Myself: Good morning, sir.

Principal: Good morning. What do you Want?

Myself: Sir, I want a transfer certificate.

Principal: A transfer certificate! Why do you need a transfer certificate? It’s the middle of the session.

Myself: My father has been transferred from Dhaka to Jamalpur. Principal Oh! I see. Can't you stay here for the rest of the session?

Myself: Sorry. I can't. My father is unable to afford me here.

Principal: Don't you have any relative here?

Myself: No, I haven't.

Principal: Have you written an application?

Myself: Yes sir. Here it is.

Principal: Have you cleared your tuition fees?

Myself: Yes, sir. Here is the money receipt. Principal Ok. Then meet the Head Clerk. He'll help you in this regard.

Myself: Thank you, sir.

Principal: God bless you my child.

Sunday, October 29, 2017

A Dialogue Between Patient and The Doctor about Fever of Patient

Question: Allnoor has been suffering from fever for a few days. He visited a doctor.
Now write a dialogue between Alinoor and the doctor.

Answer: A dialogue between Alinoor and the doctor:

Alinoor: Good evening, doctor. Will you spend me some minutes?

Doctor: Of course., I will.

Alinoor: I have been suffering from fever for a few days.

Doctor: What are the signs of fever? When do you feel temperature?

Alinoor: It's usually between 5 to 6 pm.

Doctor: Do you feel any shivering sensation then?

Alinoor: Yes, I do.

Doctor: Do you get thirst then?

Alinoor: Yes, I get. I wish I could drink very cold water.

Doctor: When does the fever remit?

Alinoor: At late hours of the night.

Doctor: Didn't you take any sort of treatment?

Alinoor: I was under the treatment of a village quack.

Doctor: Please, show me the prescription.

Alinoor: He doesn't give any written prescription. He only gave me some medicine.

Doctor: Could you tell me the names of the medicines he has prescribed?

Alinoor: Sorry, sir. I can't. But I can show you them. Here are they.

Doctor: Oh, I see. He has prescribed you wrong medicines. Yours is malaria but he has given you the medicine of typhoid. Let me prescribe some medicines for you.

Alinoor: Thank you, sir.

Saturday, October 14, 2017

An Essay on The Role of Opposition Party in Democracy

Democracy is a very lofty idea, the most popular form of government in modern age and a form of government supposed to be most suited to the genius of people at large. It has been variously defined by various writers. To Lincoln it was a government of the people, by the people and for the people. See lay defined democracy as a form of government in which everybody has a share. Dicey called it a form of government in which governing body is comparatively a large fraction of the entire nation. Literally democracy is a form of political organization of society and the state under which power legally belongs to the people, and all citizens are equal before law and enjoy political rights and freedom including the right to take part in managing the affairs of the state.

In modern representative democracies the will of the people is formulated and expressed by their representatives duly elected to perform this function. Thus, elections are an integral part of democratic functioning which presupposes existence of more than one political parties. The fate of the parties is decided through elections. The party that secures majority of seats is called upon to form the government and run the administration. The other parties are supposed to function as opposition parties.

The opposition parties have a very important role to play in the proper and smooth functioning of democracy. Though in minority they function as, watch-dog and keep a vigilant eye on the functioning of government. They have to perform two-fold function—one to place the matters of public interest before the government for action thereon, and two, to keep a cheek on the dictatorial and authoritarian actions of the government. Absence or inaction of opposition may virtually mean dictatorship of the ruling party. Presence of opposition makes the function of the government truly democratic since it exercises check on the misuse of power and authority by the party in power.

Like the party in power, the parties in opposition do have their ideologies, programmes and policies, which they try to sell to the people. Through motions, resolutions and bills in the legislature, they strive for implementation of their programmes which according to them are for the good of the people. They oppose all such measures of the party in power which they consider unjust and anti-people. In addition, they expose the misdeeds of the government. Lapses on the part of government, corruption, favoritism, nepotism and bureaucratic inefficiency are the main targets of opposition. Objective is to keep the government on the right track and not to permit dishonest politicians to grid their own axe.

On vital national and international issues, the opposition parties raise a public debate, mobilize public opinion, organize public meetings, rallies and demonstrations and try to force government to accept their view point. Their ultimate aim is to capture power by ousting the party in power. Thus, we can say that the chief function of the opposition is to propose, oppose, expose and depose.

The opposition, however, has a certain constructive role to play. It educates the people on all important issues pertaining to matters of national and international importance. During the hours of crisis and national emergency the opposition is expected to extend its full support to the official efforts in resolving the crisis and facing the emergency.

For performing the above functions successfully and effectively, the opposition must be strong and healthy. The strength of the opposition lies in its members; commitment to its programmes and policies as-well-as the public support it can muster as and when needed. A strong and vigilant opposition in itself is a powerful curb on governmental autocracy and official high-handedness. No government, howsoever strong, can ignore the opposition, which is strong. A strong opposition keeps the government on its toes; it does not permit the government to be complacent. It is always respected, consulted and heeded by the government. Though numerically weaker a united, vigilant and effective opposition tends to prevent the government from indulging in corruption and anti-people activities.

The opposition needs to be healthy. It means it should possess healthy and constructive attitude., Healthy attitude implies due appreciation of good things done by government and maximum co-operation in the official efforts aimed at common good. Opposition for the sake of opposition is not a characteristic of a healthy opposition. Constructive approach includes absence of negative attitude in dealing with the government. A negative approach on the part of opposition would destroy its credibility which is the bedrock of its strength. Hitting below the belt, character assassination, mud-slinging, violence and rowdyism do not constitute decent legitimate Parliamentary practice. A healthy opposition must function with grace and dignity to be effective. In the absence of a strong and healthy opposition democracy will generate into a dictatorship of the ruling party.